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By Richard Gale and Gary Null PhD, The Progresive Radio Network
During the past two years the coronavirus pandemic has dominated the news at the expense of everything else that is critical and urgent in our lives. As panic decreases and less cases are reported daily, health-minded people are eager or even desperate to know whether there are ways to strengthen the body's immune system to offer some protection from SARS-2 and other viral upper respiratory infections.
At the time that the pandemic was declared in March 2020, there were six known strains of coronavirus, four which were associated with the common cold or mild to moderate respiratory infections. Everyone has likely had a coronavirus infection at some time in his or her life. However, before SARS-CoV2, two strains—Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)—were more severe.
Between the years 2002-2004 and 2014-2018 these strains respectively were observed to be lethal. However, during these same periods, total deaths were under one thousand.
Compared to other viral infections that target the respiratory tract, especially influenza, until recently there was less research either to understand the pathway of infection and the drugs or natural substances to battle the virus.
During an early coronavirus task force meeting, the White House asked whether the flu vaccine would protect against the coronavirus. The flu vaccine is not only influenza-specific, it is also flu strain specific. It offers no discernable protection to other viruses.
There was a caveat to this strategy despite later CDC recommendations that the flu vaccine might lessen SARS-2 risks.
In January 2020, the journal Vaccine published a study conducted by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch at Wright Patterson Air Force Base. Researchers investigated viral interference due to receiving the flu shot; in other words, does the flu vaccine make a recipient more susceptible to other non-influenza respiratory viral infections? The study's conclusions state "Vaccine derived virus interference was significantly associated with coronavirus and human metapneumovirus."
This was not the first time that viral interference from the flu vaccine has been associated with an increase in non-influenza respiratory infections. A more thorough study, an actual clinical trial, was conducted by the University of Hong Kong in 2012. The double blind randomized controlled trial followed a group of flu-vaccinated versus placebo-vaccinated children between 6 and 15 years of age over the course of nine months to determine infection rates from 19 other respiratory viruses.
The study found "no statistically significant difference in the risk of confirmed seasonal influence influenza infection between recipients of the [influenza vaccine] or placebo." However, it was the dramatic number of incidences of non-influenza infections found in the flu-vaccinated group (105 cases), which included coronavirus, as opposed to 54 cases among those who received a placebo.
In other words, the results suggest that receiving the flu shot may increase one's risk of contracting respiratory viruses by almost 100 percent.
A Swiss study noted that the SARS coronavirus and influenza share two of the same proteases in targeted cells—TMPRSS2 and HAT. These are responsible for activating the spread of the virus at the point of infection and contribute to their pathogenesis in an infected cell.
Therefore it may be proposed that natural supplements and botanical remedies that have been shown effective against influenza may more or less be effective against coronavirus as well.
In fact, a study released by Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in the Journal of Medical Virology recommended that patients' nutritional status be evaluated before any conventional treatment. The hospital recommended a regimen that included Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, Omega-3, Selenium, Zinc, gamma globulin administered intravenously and Chinese traditional medicine.
Natural botanicals remain the most successful source for leads in drug discovery. Due to botanicals’ unique structural diversity, nature remains our greatest resource to identify unique molecules for treating disease and infection.
Therefore we have scoured the peer-reviewed literature on the National Institutes of Health's Library of Medicine database to identify compelling studies that may warrant vitamin, antioxidant, and botanical supplementation as a means to protect ourselves from coronavirus and other respiratory infections.
These have been shown to either have strong antiviral properties in general or have known biomolecular effects to strengthen the immune system against microbial infection. We are not offering prescriptions. This is just a summary of some important scientific information for you to make better informed decisions for protecting yourself while the coronavirus wends its course.
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), coronaviral infections belong to a specific epidemic disease category. Astragalus is not only a very popular plant used in TCM, but it is also one of the most researched and promising botanical plants shown to have antiviral properties.
In both TCM and Indian Ayruveda medicinal formulas, astragalus has been prescribed for centuries because of its effectiveness against infections and over-stressed respiratory conditions. Compounds, notably saponins, found in astragalus have been well researched and found to hinder influenza proliferation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory found it inhibits avian flu viruses.
Jinlin Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China conducted a study published in the journal Microbiological Pathology that concluded:
"Astragalus exhibits antiviral properties that can treat infectious bronchitis caused by [avian] coronavirus."
In China, which has a large poultry industry, avian coronaviruses are a serious threat to chicken farmers. Chinese farmers will often include astragalus in feed to protect the birds from infection as well as pig feed to ward off porcine circovirus.
In early 2020, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine completed an analysis of previous research looking at the benefits of Chinese herbal formulas against the SARS and H1N1 flu (swine flu). In three studies, among participants who took formulas against SARS, none contracted the illness. Nor did any contract H1N1 influenza in four additional studies. A primary ingredient in these formulas' was astragalus.
That same year, researchers at Beijing Children's Hospital at the Capital Medical University provided an overview of recommended diagnostic procedures and treatments for specific symptoms witnessed in Covid-19 infections that included both allopathic and traditional Chinese medicine.
In cases where there are signs of severe weakness and stress observed in the lungs and spleen, a formula called Liu Jun Zi was prescribed, which includes astragalus and ginseng as two primary botanicals.
The prestigious journal Science published a review out of Yun-nan Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China that investigated the great disparities in infection and mortality rates between different provinces—Wuhan being the most severe. In the provinces with the lowest infection rates, there was between an 84 percent to 98 percent use of TCM formulas. Again, two of the main ingredients were Astragalus and Ginseng.
During the past two years, some of the most exciting research published about natural treatments against SARS-2 infections focuses on cannabinoids.
In a cohort study, University of Chicago researchers observed that the group of persons previously taking cannabinoids (CBD) “had significantly lower SARSCov-2 infection incidence. The scientists recommended that CBD was a potential preventive agent and therapy for early SARS-2 infections.
A later Chicago study observed that human lung cells exposed to CBD for two hours before being exposed to the SARS-2 virus did not replicate in the cells. However, this effect was only observed in CBD minus hemp’s psychoactive molecule THC.
Research out of Oregon State University showed that both “cannabigerolic acid [CBDG] and cannabidiolic acid [CBDA] prevented infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells.”
Research has already identified CBDs’ effectiveness as an antiviral against hepatitis C and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Similar to inexpensive repurposed drugs shown to dramatically reduce the severity of Covid-19, Israeli scientists at University of Haifa and Rambam Health Care argue CBD will “prevent the progression from mild to severe disease.”
Besides cannabinoids’ allosteric properties, there is also evidence that they may significantly repress host inflammatory responses that might lead to hyper-inflammation and cytokine storms.
Separately, the University of Campania in Italy and the Medical College of Georgia noted that stimulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
The latter study suggests that CBD may be a powerful treatment for severe SARS-2 respiratory infections. It may be noted that because CBDs target the spike protein, phytocannabinoids are potentially effective and safe preventive remedies against post-Covid vaccination adverse effects.
Licorice Root (Glycyrrhizin Acid)
In traditional medicine, licorice root has been used to relieve and treat ulcers, sore throats, bronchitis, coughs, adrenal insufficiencies and allergic diseases.
Ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece each include licorice for treating respiratory tract infections and hepatitis.
Licorice's main antiviral compounds are known as glycyrrhizins (GL), a potent immune-active anti-inflammatory agent.
For 20 years Japan has used glycyrrhizins intravenously to treat chronic hepatitis B and C infections with very rare side effects. It has also been shown to induce apoptosis in lymphoma cells and Kaposi sarcoma related to herpes virus.
Therefore it was an unexpected surprise to discover that there is notable research on glycyrrihizin's effectiveness against coronavirus and in particular SARS.
Japan's National Institute of Infectious Disease reported GL's effectiveness against coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as well as Epstein Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus.
After the deadly SARS outbreak in 2012, virologists at Frankfurt University Medical School investigated several antiviral compounds to treat patients admitted with SARS coronavirus infections. Of all the compounds tested, licorice's GL was the most effective. The scientists concluded that "Our findings suggest that glycyrrhizin should be assessed for treatment of SARS."
The above research was later replicated at Sun Yat Sen University in China and published in the Chinese journal Bing Du Xue Bao. The researchers identified several derivatives of glycyrrhizin as primary molecules with antiviral properties. In addition to being effective against the SARS coronavirus, they also found it may be effective against herpes, HIV, hepatitis and influenza.
Earlier in 2005, a team of scientists from Goethe University in Germany and the Russian Academy of Sciences had already identified the antiviral activity of GL against SARS.
The molecule showed a ten-fold increase in anti-SARS activity compared to other potential treatments tested. One conjugate of GL had a 70-fold increase. That study was published in the Journal of Medical Chemistry.
During that same year, the Chinese Academy of Sciences screened over 200 botanical plants used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to find those with the strong potency SARS activity. Four botanicals stood out. One of the four was licorice's glycyrrhizin.
Early during the pandemic, researchers at the University of Lille in France provided a rationale for combining GL with hydroxychloroquine as a safe protocol for treating Covid-19 patients.
Other recent studies that have positively investigated GL’s effectiveness against SARS-2 replication have been published out of the University of Essen in Germany, the University of Florida, the Medical University of Warsaw, and University Marburg.
Extract of licorice root is the most effective and glycyrrhizin is also available as a separate botanical supplement.
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
Elderberry has become a popular supplement for relieving symptoms of the common cold and flu infections. It is found worldwide and is part of many of the world's indigenous pharmacopeias.
There are many species of elderberry; the species Sambucus nigra seemingly has been shown to have the most medicinal properties.
Most research has focused on elderberry's therapeutic value against influenza. Hadassah University Hospital in Israel found that elderberry was effective in vitro against 10 different influenza strains. Cytokine activity for IL-1, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 all significantly increased thereby confirming its anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties.
Another Israeli study by Hebrew University in Jerusalem and published in the Journal of Internal Medical Research found that participants enrolled with existing flu like symptoms who took 15 ml of elderberry syrup 4 times a day recovered four days earlier than those on medications or a placebo.
Finally, a University of Sydney study observed that certain compounds in elderberry inhibit the flu virus's entry and replication in human cells.
However, there is also research showing elderberry's positive impact on coronavirus infections.
In 2014, researchers at Emory University noted that elderberry extract inhibited coronavirus virility at the point of infection. The scientists hypothesized that elderberry rendered the virus non infectious.
One of the better studies came out of National Sun Yat Sen University and the China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan in 2019. The researchers used an ethanol extract of Sambucus stem (not the berry) and observed its potential against coronavirus strain NL63.
In addition to its antiviral properties, elderberry is also effective against pathogenic bacteria. Under laboratory conditions at Justus Liebig University in Germany, elderberry was shown to be very effective against several bacteria that are responsible for pneumonia during SARS-like and flu-like infections, and against Influenza A and B viruses in particular.
A systematic review of the existing research before 2011 by the University of British Columbia and published in the journal Pharmaceuticals, concluded:
"All strains of human and avian influenza viruses tested (including a Tamiflu-resistant strain), as well as herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses, were very sensitive to a standardized Echinacea purpurea preparation."
There are different species of Echinacea. The species Echinacea purpurea has been observed to be most effective and targets the most infectious pathogens.
Echinacea does present limitations depending upon the severity of an infection. Once a cold caused by any one of the various cold viruses, including coronavirus, more deeply infects the bronchia and the lower lung, echinacea does not appear to be helpful. It is more effective with upper respiratory tract infections.
One of the largest placebo double blind studies on echinacea was conducted by Cardifff University in the UK. The study followed participants for four months and confirmed the safety of long term echinacea supplementation. It also observed a statistically significant decrease in cold episodes in the echinacea group.
There are no strong studies showing echinacea's effectiveness against coronavirus. Up until 2014, only one study looked at its bioactivities against coronavirus and that was a mouse model which required high doses of the plant extract.
In 2012, Griffith University in Australia undertook one notable double blind study to determine whether echinacea provided protection to air travelers.
The study concluded:
"Supplementation with standardized Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights."
As a piece of consumer advice, a Cornell University study looked at the medicinal properties throughout different parts of the echinacea plant: leaves, stems, bark, roots, etc. The scientists noted that only echinacea extracts that contain the root showed significant antiviral properties.
Echinacea appears to modify the clinical course of flu-like respiratory infection by acting upon IL-8, IL-10 and IFN cytokine activity beneficially.
Oleuropein (OLE) is the most important biomolecule in the olive tree that contributes to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer, antimicrobial and antiviral activities and effects.
One advantage of olive leaf is that it is highly bioavailable to the body's cells.
There are almost 10,000 studies in the National Institutes of Health literature database referring to OLE, olive leaf, and olive oil, most with respect to its strong antioxidant and anticancer properties.
According to analysis conducted by the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome, oleuropein content is most potent in the plant’s buds and flowers.
Olive leaf has not been shown to be particularly effective against viral upper respiratory infections; however there is considerable evidence to support olive leaf's ability to strengthen the immune system against infectious viral diseases in addition to possessing other anti-inflammatory qualities.
There are only a few studies showing olive leaf's effectiveness against respiratory viruses. One randomized trial performed by the University of Auckland in New Zealand suggests olive leaf can contribute to treating respiratory illnesses, including coronavirus.
A 2001 study out of the University of Hong Kong identified 6 separate antiviral agents in olive that were effective against parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Olive leaf is also effective against bacterial pathogens. Most bacterial pneumonias are gram-positive. According to a joint study by Arab American University and the University of Central Florida College of Medicine, OLE worked best against gram-positive pathogens but gram-negative organisms appeared to be resistant to OLE (eg, E coli, Salmonellas, etc.).
New York University biochemists identified olive leaf extract's anti-HIV activity to modulate the host cell gene expression due to HIV infection.
In fact, olive leaf extracts reversed HIV-1 infections. This was published in Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Research. The conclusions state, "Treatment with OLE reverses many of these HIV-1 infection-associated changes."
Another joint study by NYU and Harvard Medical School concluded that OLE from olive leaf is "a unique class of HIV-1 inhibitors" and is "effective against viral fusion and integration."
Oregano possesses a compound called carvacrol that has been shown to be antiviral.
Soochow University in China and the University of Oklahoma published a study in the BMC Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine focusing on oregano's antiviral properties against influenza viruses.
Although oregano did not kill the virus it nevertheless inhibited the virus' ability to translate proteins responsible for the viral binding to cells.
A University of Putra Malaysia meta-analysis of existing research of different plant essential oils reported oregano was strongest against the flu-like viruses adenovirus and coxsackie virus.
A 2010 randomized double blind study study published in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine suggested oregano was beneficial as a throat spray and showed significant and immediate improvement of upper respiratory infectious ailments.
University of Arizona published a paper in the Journal of Applied Microbiology investigating oregano's antiviral properties when used as a sanitizer. The study focused on one flu-like virus, novovirus. If sprayed on surfaces, carvacrol will kill the virus within 15 minutes of exposure. The most recent research into Covid-19's surface life—living outside of an animal host—is 9 days.
Finally, it is worth noting a Harvard Medical School study published in the November 2021 issue of British Medical Journal, which analyzed data gathered from nearly 600,000 participants comparing Covid-19 symptom rates with diet. Persons eating a healthy plant-based diet were associated with lower risk and severity of Covid-19. This was the case even after accounting for other lifestyle measures and behavior.
Unlike the U.S., most of the world, especially in Asia and continental Europe, recognizes Vitamin C as an important anti-viral agent. It is also a remarkable antioxidant shown to ward off infections.
China has conducted several clinical trials with intravenous Vitamin C to treat patients infected with the Covid19 strain. The city government of Shanghai is actively treating patients with intravenous Vitamin C.
A trial at Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan uses 24,000 mg per day intravenously. The Wuhan study can be viewed on the US National Library of Medicine's website here.
A multi-institute review of twelve Vitamin C studies, five randomized controlled, was published in the November 2021 issue of Life.
Patients suffering from severe Covid also appear to have suboptimal levels of Vitamin C. The analysis concluded that for severe Covid cases, intravenous Vitamin C improved oxygenation parameters and decreased hospital stays and mortality. High doses of Vitamin C orally also increased recovery rates from mild infection
Seoul National University College of Medicine concluded that Vitamin C is an essential factor for anti-viral immune responses at the early stage of Influenza A infection.
In 2017 the University of Helsinki reviewed 148 studies that indicated Vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria and viruses. The most extensive indication studied was the common cold.
Among people who are physically active, Vitamin C was most beneficial. However, many studies relied on very low Vitamin C doses, which likely contributed to the minor benefits observed. Some of these were as low as 100 mg daily.
In addition, the studies showed that colds' duration was frequently shorter and less severe among people with sufficient Vitamin C levels.
An early randomized double blind trial to investigate Vitamin C's ability to protect elderly hospitalized patients from acute respiratory infections was conducted at Hudderfield University in the UK. The study relied on a very low dose of 200 mg per day. Nevertheless, those who received the vitamin fared significantly better than those taking placebo.
Finally, there was another controlled placebo study involving 715 students between the ages 18-32 taking 1000 mg four times daily. The test group had an 85 percent decrease in flu and cold symptoms compared to the control.
Barely a week goes by without another study appearing in the peer-reviewed literature that looks at either Vitamin D's therapeutic characteristics against viral infections or the risks of Vitamin D deficiency.
A high number of otherwise healthy adults have been reported to have low levels of vitamin D, mostly at the end of the Winter season. Deficiency rates vary between 42 percent for the entire population to 82 percent for Black Americans and 63 percent for Latinos.
People who are housebound, institutionalized and those who work night shifts are most likely to be vitamin D deficient. This includes many elderly people who receive limited exposure to sunlight.
It has been shown that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk in autoimmunity illnesses and greater susceptibility to infection. It also boosts up the body's mucosal defenses which are critical for protecting ourselves from infectious respiratory viruses.
Research continues to pile up showing that Vitamin D is crucial both for the prevention and treatment of Covid-19 cases. However, sadly health officials continue to ignore the importance of this vitamin to lessen symptomatic Covid cases.
Yet the research is near conclusive. An Israeli study conducted at Galilee Medical Center reported that 26 percent of Covid patients who died were Vitamin D deficient, compared to 3 percent among other patients.
A separate study conducted by the German Cancer Research Center estimated that Vitamin D insufficiency may account for almost 9 of 10 Covid-19 deaths. They also report that Vitamin D suppresses excessive cytokine release that may contribute to a cytokine storm.
Dr. Michael Holick, a medical professor at Boston University School of Medicine is regarded as an expert in Vitamin D. In his 2020 led study, Dr. Holick looked at 190,000 Covid cases representing all 50 states, and found that sufficient levels of the vitamin could reduce the risk of infection by as much as 54 percent.
In addition to Vitamin D supplementation, ambient ultraviolet B light, which is key for the vitamin’s production in the skin, is strongly protective against severe Covid-19 illness and death. This was the conclusion of a joint study conducted by Trinity College in Ireland and the University of Edinburgh, which enrolled almost a half million individuals in the UK.
Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital in conjunction with a global collaborative study to follow up on a Cochrane analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials involving 11,000 participants confirmed that vitamin D. taken daily or weekly significantly cut the risk of respiratory infections in half.
Jikei University School of Medicine in Japan conducted a randomized double blind placebo trial to measure the rate that Vitamin D reduced seasonal influenza A. Almost twice as many participants in the placebo group came down with the flu compared to the Vitamin D group. The Japanese scientists also observed that people with a history of asthma were best protected.
For children, a Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia meta review identified 13 of 18 studies confirming that Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased incidences of acute lower respiratory infection.
Oxidative stress is a well known pathway for microbial infections such as viruses and bacterial pneumonia, especially in the lungs.
When the lungs are subject to serious oxidative stress, there is an increase in inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-8 and Tumor necrosis factor or TNF.
Each of these cytokines have been shown repeatedly in clinical research to play a role in different respiratory infections including influenza, coronavirus, echovirus, adenovirus, coxsackie virus and others.
Therefore, certain antioxidants can alleviate lung damage due to oxidative stress.
N-acetyl cysteine is one of these extremely important antioxidants. It exhibits both direct and indirect antioxidant properties. The indirect benefit is that it increases the concentration of another important antioxidant, glutathione, in the lung cells.
Before the pandemic, there was already substantial evidence that NAC significantly reduces the rate of influenza clinical symptoms.
Johann Goethe University Department of Virology observed that NAC inhibits the replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses by decreasing several of these pro-inflammatory molecules. The scientists recommend that NAC should be included as an additional treatment option in the case of an influenza A pandemic.
An Italian randomized placebo study conducted at the University of Genoa found that subjects who were already suspected of having contact with the H1N1 flu virus who were placed under NAC treatment had a 25 percent rate of experiencing symptoms compared to 79 percent in the placebo group.
Since the pandemic, however, the body of research showing that NAC’s immune modulating characteristics is also effective against SARS-2 has multiplied. It is very inexpensive and has an extreme low toxicity. It has been FDA approved for many years, despite federal efforts to suppress its use for treating Covid-19 cases.
L-Lysine and Melatonin
Since amino acids have been implicated with viral infection and replication, research is underway to identify very cheap and effective therapies to fight SARS-2 infections and lessen their severity.
Among them, L-lysine and melatonin have shown the greatest promise.
The journal Biomacromolecules reported in early 2022 that Tsinghua University in Beijing L-lysine extended protection to and stabilize Covid-19 neutralizing antibodies.
China Medical University in Taiwan likewise found the amino acid could be used as a safe prophylactic to be added in daily dietary regimens. The Taiwanese study observed that lysine and lysine-ester was especially effective in blocking SARS-2 early stage entry.
Similarly, the amino acid melatonin may serve as an adjuvant therapy against Covid-19.
Researchers at Wayne State University have shown that melatonin intervenes with the SARS-2 virus at several cellular sites associated with decreased oxygen saturation—a frequent symptom in severe Covid cases.
Another study conducted by Jagiellonian Medical College in Poland came to the same conclusion. In fact melatonin has been approved by the FDA for inclusion in an emergency authorized drug-based cocktail to manage viral progression.
A Texas Tech University Health Center review of the existing scientific data concludes that it reduces “reactive oxygen mediated damage, cytokine-induced inflammation and lymphopenia.”
Another supplement shown to be effective is NAD+. NAD+ regulates immune responses during viral infections.
Researchers at Harvard Medical School believe it may be a promising therapeutic target against SARS-2 to strengthen the body’s antiviral defenses. The scientists noted that low levels of NAD+ “might exacerbate Covid-19 severity,” and boosters either through NAD+ supplementation or with the derivative nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is necessary.
Nanoparticle or colloidal silver has been studied extensively for its anti-bacterial properties but less so for infectious viruses. Most studies for silver's antiviral activities have focused on HIV-1, Hepatitis B, herpesvirus and respiratory syncytial virus or RSV.
In a 2005 issue of the Journal of Nanotechnology, the University of Texas and Mexico University observed that silver nanoparticles could kill HIV-1 within 3 hours, and they suspected that this may be true for many other viruses as well. However, this conclusion may be too premature and more research is necessary.
There are studies showing silver's efficacy against respiratory viruses. One large study by Japan's National Defense Medical College Research Institute, published in the Journal of Molecular Sciences, recommended that Japanese healthcare workers take nanosilver to protect them from viruses including coronavirus.
In 2010, the University of Naples measured silver nanoparticles' capabilities to reduce and prevent infection from the parainfluenza type 3 virus. The scientists hypothesized that the silver may block the virus' interaction with the cell. Then a joint study by Deakin University in Australia and Osaka University in Japan found that colloidal silver significantly protected cells from H3N2 flu infection and prevented viral growth in the lungs
Finally, colloidal or nanoparticle gold has also been shown to inhibit the flu virus' binding capacity to a cell's plasma membrane. That research was carried out by Freie University in Germany.
Yes, we should be concerned about serious symptomatic SARS-2 infections. At the moment, the primary solutions for managing the crisis has been to spend billions of dollars on experimental vaccines and novel patented and yet to be proven drugs.
These are the only talking points in the mainstream media. Otherwise, there is no mention about what we can do to strengthen our immune system.
On the other hand, the recommended natural solutions shared above, supported in the peer reviewed scientific literature, is something everyone can do. Besides, it is safe and not expensive. Therefore these natural solutions too should be considered as a viable and effective recourse to prevent and lessen SARS-2 infections.
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